Succinic acid or amber acid is a dicarboxylic acid and is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle, a key metabolic pathway regulating respiratory chain in mitochondria.
Succinic acid expresses various biologic activities: 1) it serves as a natural antibiotic due to its modest acidic or caustic nature; 2) it reduces fatigue and improves brain performance; 3) it decreases gastric secretion relaxes gastric/duodenal smooth muscles; 4) it eases perimenopausal hot flashes; 5) it reduces the effects of hangovers by activating the degradation of acetaldehyde - a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism - into CO2 and H2O through aerobic metabolism; 6) it reduces hyperactivation of immune system associated with acute and chronic infectious processes; 7) it normalizes immune responses in patients with chronic inflammatory (reactive arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) and autoimmune diseases (lupus); 8) it reduces joint pain associated with osteoarthritis; 9) it accelerates iron absorption; 10) it normalizes adrenal function; 11) it improves glucose control and protects liver function.
Intravenously administered succinic acid and its salts are available in Europe and Russia for treatment of septic shock and organ failure.
Typical indications for use of succinic acid in humans include:
- Treatment of postmenopausal symptoms/hot flashes
- Treatment of various forms of arthritis and autoimmune diseases
- Treatment of certain mitochondrial myopathies
- Adjunct therapy of septic shock and chronic infection
- Adjunct therapy of chronic fatigue
- Adjunct therapy of peptic ulcer disease/gastric ulcer
- Improvement of iron absorption
- Adjunct therapy of adrenal insufficiency
- Adjunct therapy of diabetes mellitus
- Hepatoprotective activity
Potential side effects:
- Abdominal pain
Potential drug interactions:
- ACE inhibitors (Enalapril, Ramipril, Quinapril, Lisinopril, Benazepril, Fosinopril )
- Chronic anticoagulation therapy
Complementary natural products:
- Liver detoxifier
- TMG (trimethylglycine)
- Vitamin C
Contents: 100 Vcaps
Dosage Information: The recommended standard dose of succinic acid is 500 or 1000 mg taken twice a day. It has been described, that patients with chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases may benefit from much high doses (10,000 or even 40,0000 mg a day). The doses above 2000 mg a day should be administered under strict physician’s supervision.
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Vasilyev KY, Kiselyova AA, Khazanov VA. Effects of succinic and glutamic acid combination on energy metabolism in the liver of mice under conditions of hypoxia. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009 Mar;147(3):335-8.
Vengerovskii AI, Khazanov VA, Eskina KA, Vasilyev KY. Effects of silymarin (hepatoprotector) and succinic acid (bioenergy regulator) on metabolic disorders in experimental diabetes mellitus. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007 Jul;144(1):53-6.
Will G, Boddy K. Influence of succinic acid on absorption of iron studied by whole-body monitoring. Am J Clin Nutr. 1970 Jun;23(6):779-81.
Zolotykh MA. Succinic acid infusions for correction of renal ischemia in patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis. Urologiia. 2007 Nov-Dec;(6):31-6.
- Chronic fatigue
- Chronic Infections